What Tests are Available to Diagnose Diabetes?
The following tests are used for diagnosis:
• Fasting plasma glucose test (FPG) is an elevated blood sugar level in a person who has not eaten anything for at least 8 hours and is the gold standard for diagnosing diabetes. This blood test is used to detect diabetes and pre-diabetes. Normal fasting blood sugar levels generally run between 70 to 110 mg/dL. A fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL is considered pre-diabetes. If your blood sugar levels is 126 mg/dL or higher on two separate tests, you have diabetes.
• Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) measures blood glucose after fasting 8 hours. First, your fasting blood will be drawn and then you will be asked to drink a specific glucose drink in which your blood will be drawn again every 30 to 60 minutes after you drink the solution. The test may take up to 3 hours for completion. This test can be used to diagnose pre-diabetes, diabetes and gestational diabetes. However, most physicians find the fasting plasma glucose test easier to perform in a clinical setting.
•The glycated hemoglobin test (A1C) indicates your average blood sugar levels for the past two to three months from a non-fasting blood draw. Measurements of A1c have commonly been used to monitor the blood sugar control of persons already diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. However, the American Diabetes Association has endorsed A1c levels of 6.5% or higher to be used in the diagnosis of diabetes. A1c levels for children and teens are different. Persons with conditions such as anemia, kidney or liver disease, and high cholesterol may get abnormal results from A1c tests.
Are There Advanced Tests to Measure Stages of Pre-Diabetes or Progression Toward Diabetes and Insulin Resistance?
The CDC estimates that only 40% of adults at risk for developing diabetes are obese (BMI >30). How can the other 60% be identified? Our physicians at NaturoMedica use two types of advanced tests to measure the stages of pre-diabetes, progression toward type 2 diabetes or cardio-metabolic syndrome. These specialized blood tests incorporate traditional markers of blood glucose, along with state-of-the-art inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers. The interplay of these biomarkers can provide our physicians with stage-specific therapeutic interventions which allows for an individualized treatment approach.
Please ask our NaturoMedica physicians about these specialized tests and reports. We will discuss the importance of early assessment, correction of risk factors and assess your personal risk for developing diabetes.